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Moreover, glyptic art in Palestine, which had previously been based on Phoenician-Israelite archetypes, appears to have been revolutionized by Assyrian glyptic styles.12 In short, the archaeological record points to an enormous difference between the period following the Babylonian conquest and the period following the Assyrian conquest. While the Assyrians at first adopted a policy of destruction and deportation, this policy was soon almost entirely reversed. Dalley, “The Cuneiform Tablet from Tawilan,” in Crystal M.

The Assyrians rebuilt almost every destroyed town, sending in large numbers of new people from other lands, on a scale seldom seen in the long history of Palestine. Bennet and Piotr Bienkowski, Excavations at Tawilan in Southern Jordan (Oxford- Oxford Univ.

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Four stone memorial stelae erected by Assyrian kings have been recovered at Samaria, Ashdod (see photo, below), Ben-Shemen and Kakun,7 and Assyrian administrative tablets in cuneiform have been found at Sepphoris, Tell Keisan, Samaria, Gezer and Hadid. Lipinski (Leuven- Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Orientalistiek, 1995), pp.

In addition, archaeologists can study the Lamashtu tabletc that was discovered in the vicinity of Lachish.8 Excavations have uncovered Assyrian structures at Ayeleth ha-Shahar, Gezer, Tell Jemmeh, Tel Sera‘, Tel Haror and elsewhere, and we have already mentioned the line of fortresses that the Assyrians established along the Via Maris.

When Nebuchadnezzar first placed the city under siege in 597 B. E., the city quickly capitulated, thereby avoiding a general destruction. The evidence of this destruction is widely confirmed in Jerusalem excavations.a On his first swing through Judah, Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed much of Philistia—Ekron, Tel Batash, Tell Jemmeh, Ruqeish and Tel Sera‘. These are indeed impressive, but there is nothing above them that can be attributed to the Babylonian period.

But in response to a revolt by Judah’s King Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar dispatched an army that, after an 18-month siege, captured and destroyed the city in 586 B. Particularly devastated was Ashkelon, which the Babylonians sacked in 604 B. E.b Similar evidence of Babylonian destruction can be found throughout the Beersheba Valley, in the Aravah (the valley south of the Dead Sea) and in the Jordan River valley. The Babylonian destruction of the major harbor towns along the Palestinian coast also ended the previously intensive import of Greek ceramics into the country. E., for example, not a single document connected with the imperial Babylonian administration of Palestine has been found.

This is only slightly longer than the Babylonian period, which lasted about 65 years. Kenyon, Samaria-Sebaste III- The Objects (London- Palestine Exploration Fund, 1957), p. 87–99; Yosef Porath et al., The History and Archaeology of Emek Hefer (Tel Aviv- ha-Kibuts ha-me’uhad, 1985), no. Hopfe, ed., Uncovering Ancient Stones- Essays in Memory of H. Richardson (Winona Lake, IN- Eisenbrauns, 1994), pp. Albright, “Notes on Ammonite History,” in Lawrence T. Herr, eds., The Archaeology of Jordan and Other Studies- Presented to Siegfrid H.

After their conquest, the Assyrians established several provinces in Palestine. 135–146; Haim Tadmor and Miriam Tadmor, “The Seal of Bel-Ashardu—A Case of Migration,” in Karel van Lerberghe and Antoon Schoors, eds., Immigration and Emigration within the Ancient Near-East- Festschrift E. From south to north, we can trace the effects of Babylonian might—at Tell el-Kheleifeh on the coast of the Red Sea, at Ein Gedi on the shore of the Dead Sea, and further north at Dan, the source of the Jordan River. As scholar Saul Weinberg has lamented, “We are left with a gap of almost a century for which we have so little imported Greek pottery that it is of no help just when it is most needed.”3 The Babylonian period is characterized by other notable absences as well. The Babylonian remains consist only of a few dozen Neo-Babylonian seals and seal impressions, some of which are imports and some of which are locally manufactured imitations. (essentially before the Babylonian destruction), while the majority date to the Persian period.The same is true in excavations at major northern sites—Hazor; Megiddo, overlooking the Jezreel Valley; and Dor, on the Mediterranean coast—and in central Judah, where, in addition to Jerusalem, we may look at Ramat Rahel and Lachish, among other sites. But even a superficial examination of the stratigraphic contexts of these objects shows that some date to the late seventh and very early sixth centuries B. Very few can be safely attributed to the Babylonian period itself.4 Archaeologists have recovered three Babylonian cuneiform tablets in Palestine.Moreover, their destruction of the country’s major harbor towns along the Mediterranean coast ruined international trade relations and left the economic situation of the rest of the country, including the previous Assyrian provinces, in shambles. 124–125; Stern, The Material Culture of the Land of the Bible in the Persian Period, 538–332 B. As a result, the people in the region were reduced to poverty. Inscribed during one of his campaigns in this area, it has nothing to do with the Babylonian administration of the country.6 Now let us compare this with the situation after the Assyrian conquest. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, The Excavations of Gezer, vol. 76–89; Ronny Reich and Bosnat Brandl, “Gezer under Assyrian Rule,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 117 (1985), pp. 12 (Hebrew); Gary Beckman, “Tablet Fragments from Sepphoris,” Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brêves et Utilitaires (1997), no. 63–74; Reich, “Assyrian Royal Buildings in the Land of Israel,” in Hannah Katzenstein et al., eds., The Architecture of Ancient Israel (Jerusalem- Israel Exploration Society, 1992), pp. 214–219; David Ussishkin and John Woodhead, “Excavations at Tel Jezreel, 1994–1996, Third Report,” Tel Aviv 29 (1997), pp. 129–132; Ruth Hestrin and Stern, “Two ‘Assyrian’ Bowls from Israel,” IEJ 23 (1973), pp. 12–16; Ornan, “A Mesopotamian Influence on West Semitic Inscribed Seals” in Sass and Christoph Uehlinger, eds., Studies in the Iconography of Northwest Semitic Inscribed Seals, Orbis biblicus et orientalis 25 (Frieburg- Universitatsverlag, 1993), pp. Landes, “The Material Civilization of the Ammonites,” Biblical Archaeologist 24 (1961), pp. ” BAR 19-06, “The Late Iron Age-Persian Ceramic Horizon at Tall al ‘Umayri,” Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan, vol.


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